Thursday, May 24, 2018

FCI and German White:

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Category: Schnauzer Facts

cd white dark skinFrom a Shady history to todays dogs.

Part 1

The Shady and questionable early history of the German and FCI white.....

German White:

In 1948 the white bitch Dixie v. Grunewald was born in Germany out of the blacks, Zecher v. Schoenhardt and Asta v. Grunewald. In spite of demands for her death, Dixie was raised by her breeder, Irmgard Sauer, and later bred with the white Standard Schnauzer Tell v. Bad Cannstadt. Inbreeding of their offspring and others became the basis of the white color in Germany, although Irmgard Sauer was the only breeder allowed to breed this color for several years.



cd white dark skin

She defied the wishes  of the  German Pinscher  Schnauzer  club, but  was allowed to continue breeding on extremely limited registration as an experimental kennel.

In 1970 this color was accepted in Germany only after  a civil lawsuit and a judge forced the breed club to recognize it.

To add  some information that is left-out frequently when talking about this genetic mutation

(it's actually an absence of color, not a color to itself) :

  • Whites were only accepted into the German breed standard after a Civil court case in the late 1970's.
  • In Germany,  each of the now four accepted German Schnauzer colors are shown as SEPARATE BREEDS.
  • Europe also frowns on color-mixing between the "breeds". In fact, in Germany you cannot cross-breed the colors.
  • The arguments against accepting white into other clubs have involved the fact, that since, unlike Germany, the U.S. and Canadian clubs see all three colors as one breed, the breed standard should be left alone.

A dog that is  both "ee" and "ii" would exhibit as white with regular colored nose eyes and pads , and it's coat will be either a very light buff color all the way to ice white.  Scientists   have tracked the color  to the "E" loci.  What is still being debated on US dogs is whether or not the recessive   "e" is a natural mutation, or it was introduced from outside crosses.   The early  history  of the white in Germany is a little dodgy since the kennel crossed a mutated white bitch with an unregistered white standard to start the line.  If she had waited and attempted to produce a sibling and linebred it  or done line breeding to produce white it may have been easier to argue as a natural occurance, but that initial out crossing is what causes a lot of headache due to the inability to verify if the first stud was even a Purebred standard .

Combinations/mutations that  could cause  white miniature schnauzers.

In Germany there are white schnauzers from a white bitch that was born to two black parents.

 E/I effected  is the most likely 

If an animal is e/e, and exhibits the "ii" intensity it's Phaeomelanin would be stripped and it would appear very light yellow or white. There have been instances of a mutation of the lowest 11 amino acids on the "e/e" locus. So it's Passable that either both parents were Ee, or that an isolated mutation occurred that created a yellow dog with extreme diluted intensity at "I". But the question still remains to see how many generations did NOT produce a white or yellow puppy to see if it was an  isolated mutation ,a hidden "e/e" or scandalous mixed breeding. in Germany(and most of Europe) where these dogs are bred , each color of schnauzer is considered a separate breed and so whites are not cross bred to other colors , nor are salt and peppers, crossed to blacks, or black and silvers. The white genes should be isolated to the white kennels.

redcd white dark skin

                      e/e Phaeomelanin only coat                          e/e  Phaeomelanin stripped by i/i

If 2 black parents both carry  "e"  and "ii" 

aa aa E e Kb ky ii ii
at ataa ataa
aa aaaa aaaa
e, Ee ee
Kb KbKb Kbky
ky Kbky kyky
ii ii ii
ii ii ii

of 36 possible combinations:

20 will be black 

10 black dogs will be "EE"

10 black dogs will be "Ee"

4 dogs will in this scenario be black and silver

2  black and silver will be "EE"

2  black and silver will be "Ee"

12 dogs will be "white" Phaeomelanin based coats, "ee" ," ii"

The eumelinin will be stripped from the coat by e/e and the Phaeomelanin will be stripped by i/i

6 with be "white" carrying recessive Agouti  black. 

6 will be "white" carrying "black and tan" "at" .

 Part 2

 Modern History of the German and FCI white dogs.


In FCI countries where the miniature schnauzer is shown as separate color classes and the colors are not crossbred, there does exist a modern and very pretty White miniature schnauzer. 


At this point the PSK and FCI have decided to accept that the white is an "e" loci mutation from one line of black dogs. all white dogs trace ther roots back to one bitch born to Mrs Sauer, who was mated to an unregistered standard schnauzer. After many years of bickering the courts in Germany forced the PSK's hand and they are now registered..

30 years latter and several kennels work around the world the white schnauzer has been refined into a physically fine example of the breed.  The white schnauzer was developed  from these FCI recognized kennels using selected imported dog from Mrs Sauer's lines. FCI white schnauzers  exhibit  proper  hard coats that range from a light buff to ice white.  The light buff color is some evidence of the  recessive "ee"  eumelinin masking gene  that was mutated in some blacks but  was bred out of the small gene pool that was brought to the United States and Canada. Although it is possible for a similar mutation to occur in black lines it is less likely in the United States because the color pools are mixed and not breed  only color to color.

In the FCI world  countries the white is shown in confirmation in it's own class just like the blacks, black and silver , and salt and pepper. 

further reading:

Translation (from German) from Schnauzer-Pinscher by Dr. Hans Raeber

The White Miniature Schnauzer

.......... White miniature schnauzers developed several times as mutations from black parents. For example, the President of the Swiss Schnauzer and Pinscher Club, A. Schmid, had 2 snow white puppies out of an all black mating. Because this color wasn't desired, the puppies weren't raised. Similar things might have happened to other breeders as well.

The first breeder who was determined to breed and raise white miniature schnauzers was the 84-year old and still very active Irmgard Sauer in Ludwigsburg. Mrs. Sauer started her own kennel "v. Grunewald" with her black female "Amsel v.d. Burg Heldenstein". The bitch was mated in 1946 with an all black male "Vastl v.d. Burg Heldenstein" and they produced 3 black males and one bitch, "Asta v. Grunewald". How far there was incest involved is not clear since not all the paperwork was complete and both parents were from the same kennel.

On the 13th of February 1948 the bitch "Asta" and the male "Zecher v. Schoenhardt" had 4 puppies; one of them was a snow white bitch. Mrs. Sauer decided to keep and raise the white bitch and start an all white breed. But her happiness was denied. The club wished the death of the little white bitch, because her color wasn't recognized. In their opinion it was a "garbage product" of the schnauzer breed and the danger, as Max Kemp 3 years later wrote, was that the white schnauzer would develop "strange-colored, spotted and wrong-looking schnauzer types", which is totally wrong and only resulted out of misunderstanding of basic genetics.

They threatened to expel Mrs. Sauer out of the club if she didn't change her mind. "They will never pass the FCI", wrote Max Kemp in October 1951, and Best, 1st President of the PSK in 1948, advised Mrs. Sauer that it would be "best to send the white bitch to dog heaven". 

Mrs. Sauer didn't let that stop her; she raised little "Dixie" and mated her later with the white standard schnauzer "Tell v. Bad Cannstadt", whom we don't know anything about since he wasn't registered in the studbook. Out of this mating there were 4 white puppies, "Blanco, Bianka, Blanche, and Blondie".

A second mating also brought 4 white puppies. The 2 siblings out of the first litter, "Blanko" and "Bianka" were mated, which produced 5 white puppies (C-litter). "Bianka" out of the 2nd litter and "Edie" were mated and produced in 1951 the white D-litter.

Out of the C-litter the bitch "Comtess" was mated with the black "Graf v. Grunewald", producing 3 white and 2 black puppies, which means that "Graf" also carried the white in his genes, too. Now they had developed a breed stock which could be used to raise white miniature schnauzers. But the PSK still wouldn't recognize them. They expelled Mrs. Sauer and had her in and out of court. We don't want to dwell on that, as often in breeding dogs it wasn't about the dogs, but humans and their opinions.

After 1968 there are litter registrations and pedigrees for white dogs, which are still today internationally recognized. If they will survive, we will see.